2. By the ancient law of England this crime was punished by retaliation, membrum pro membro. 3 Inst. 118. It is punished in the United States generally by fine and imprisonment. The civil law punished it with death. Dig. 48, 8, 4, 2. For the French law, vide Code Penal, art. 316. 3. The consequences ofcastration, when complete, are impotence and sterility. 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 72.