PUBLICATION. The act by which a thing is made public.

2. It differs from promulgation, (q. v.) and see also Toullier, Dr. Civ. Fr. Titre Preliminaire, n. 59, for the difference in the meaning of these two words.

3. Publication has different meanings. When applied to a law, it signifies the rendering public the existence of the law; when it relates to the opening the depositions taken in a case in chancery, it means that liberty is given to the officer in whose custody the depositions of witnesses in a cause are lodged, either by consent of parties, or by the rules or orders of the court, to show the depositions openly, and to give out copies of them. Pract. Reg. 297; 1 Harr. Ch. Pr. 345; Blake's Ch. Pr. 143. When it refers to a libel, it is its communication to a second or third person, or a greater number. Holt on Libels, 254, 255, 290; Stark. on Slander, 350; Holt's N. P. Rep. 299; 2 Bl. R. 1038; 1 Saund. 112, n. 3. And when spoken of a will, it signifies that the testator has done some act from which it can be concluded that he intended the instrument to operate as his will. Cruise, Dig. tit. 38, c. 5, s. 47; 3 Atk. 161; 4 Greenl. R. 220; 3 Rawle, R. 15; Com. Dig. Estates by devise, E 2. Vide Com. Dig. Chancery, Q; Id. Libel, B 1; Ibid. Action upon the case for defamation, G 4; Roscoe's Cr. Ev. 529; Bac. Ab. Libel, B; Hawk. P. C. B. 1, c. 73, s. 10; 3 Yeates' R. 128; 10 Johns. R. 442. As to the publication of an award, see 6 N. H. Rep. 36. See, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.