2. Remainders are either vested or contingent. A vested remainder is one by which a present interest passes to the party. though to be enjoyed in future; and by which the estate is invariably fixed to remain to a determinate person, after the particular estate has been spent. Vide 2 Jo ins. R. 288; 1 Yeates, R. 340.
3. A contingent remainder is one which is limited to take effect on an event or condition, which may never happen or be performed, or which may not happen or be performed till after the determination of the preceding particular estate; in which case such remainder never can take effect.
4. According to Mr. Fearne, contingent remainders may properly be distin-guished into four sorts. 1. Where the remainder depends entirely on a contin-gent determination of the preceding estate itself. 2. Where the contingency on which the remainder is to take effect, is independent of the determination of the preceding estate. 3. Where the condition upon which the remainder is limited, is certain in event, but the determination of the particular estate may happen before it. 4. Where the person, to whom the remainder is limited, is not yet ascertained, or not yet in being. Fearne, 5.
5. The pupillary substitutions of the civil law somewhat resembled contingent remainders. 1 Brown's Civ. Law, 214, n.; Burr. 1623. Vide, generally, Viner's Ab. h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t; Com. Dig. h. t.; 4 Kent, Com. 189; Yelv. 1, n.; Cruise, Dig. tit. 16; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 184; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.