2. This mode of trial by jury was adopted soon after the conquest of England, by William, and was fully established for the trial of civil suits in the reign of Henry II. Crabb's C. L. 50, 61. In the old French law they are called inquests or tourbes of ten men. 2 Loisel's Instit. 238, 246, 248.
3. Juries are either grand juries, (q. v.) or petit juries. The former having been treated of elsewhere, it will only be necessary to consider the latter. A petit jury consists of twelve citizens duly qualified to serve on juries, impanneled and sworn to try one or more issues of facts submitted to them, and to give a judgment respecting the same, which is called a verdict.
4. Each one of the citizens so impanneled and sworn is called a juror. Vide Trial.
5. The constitution of the United States directs, that "the trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury;" and this invaluable institution is also, secured by the several state constitutions. The constitution of the United States also provides that in suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved. Amendm. VII.
6. It is scarcely practicable to give the rules established in the different states to secure impartial juries; it may, however, be stated that in all, the selection of persons who are to serve on the jury is made by disinterested officers, and that out of -the lists thus made out, the jurors are selected by lot.