SCIENTER, knowingly.

2. A man may do many acts which are justifiable or not, as he is ignorant or not ignorant of certain facts. He may pass a counterfeit coin, when he is ignorant of its being counterfeit, and is guilty of no offence; but if he knew the coin to be counterfeit, which is called the scienter, he is guilty of passing counterfeit money. A man who keeps an animal which injures some person, or his property, is answerable for damages, or in some cases he may be indicted if he had a knowledge of such animal's propensity to do injury. 3 Blackst. Comm. 154; 2 Stark. Ev. 178; 4 Campb. 198; 2 Str. 1264; 2 Esp. 482; Bull. N. P. 77; Burr. 2092; 2 Lev. 172; Lord Raym. 110; 2 B. & A. 620; 2 C. M. & R. 496; 5 C. & P. 1; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 187; 1 Leigh, N. P. 552, 553; 7 C. & P. 755.

4. In this respect the civil law agrees with our own. Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 2, t. 8, s. 2. As to what evidence maybe given to prove guilty knowledge, see Archb. Cr. Pl. 109. Vide Animal; Dog.