RECAPTION, remedies. The act of a person who has been deprived of the cus-tody of another to which he is legally entitled, by which he regains the peaceable custody of such person; or of the owner of personal or real property who has been deprived of his possession, by which he retakes possession, peaceably. In each of these cases the law allows the recaption of the person or of the property, provided he can do so without occasioning a breach of the peace, or an injury to a third person who has not been a party to the wrong. 3 Inst. 134; 2 Rolle, Rep. 55, 6; Id. 208; 2 Rolle, Abr. 565; 3 Bl. Comm. 5; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2440, et seq.
2. Recaption may be made of a person, of personal property, of real property; each of these will be separately examined.
3. - 1. The right of recaption of a person is confined to a hushand in re-taking his wife; a parent, his child, of whom he has the custody; a master, his apprentice and, according to Blackstone, a master, his servant; but this must be limited to a servant who assents to the recaption; in these cases, the party injured may peaceably enter the house of the wrongdoer, without a demand being first made, the outer door being open, and take and carry away the person wrongfully detained. He may also enter peaceably into the house of a person harboring, who was not concerned in the original abduction. 8 Bing. R. 186; S. C. 21 Engl. C. L. Rep. 265.
4. - 2. The same principles extend to the right of recaption of personal property. In this sort of recaption, too much care cannot be observed to avoid any personal injury or breach of the peace.
5. - 3. In the recaption of real estate the owner may, in the absence of the occupier, break open the outer door of a house and take possession; but if, in regaining his possession, the party be guilty of a forcible entry and breach of the peace, he may be indicted; but the wrongdoer or person who had no right to the possession, cannot sustain any action for such forcible regaining possession >
2. Although expressed to be in full of all demands, it is only prima facie evidence of what it purports to be and upon satisfactory proof being made that it was obtained by fraud, or given either under a mistake of facts or an ignorance of law, it may be inquired into and corrected in a court of law as well as in equity. 1 Pet. C. C. R. 182; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 355; S. P. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 309; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 564, 589; 12 Serg. & Rawle, 131; 1 Sid. 44; 1 Lev. 43; 1 Saund. 285; 2 Lutw. 1173; Co. Lit. 373; 2 Stark. C. 382; 1 W., C. C. R. 328; 2 Mason's R. 541; 11 Mass. 27; 1 Johns. Cas. 145; 9 John. R. 310; 8 Johns. R. 389; 5 Johns. R. 68; 4 Har. & McH. 219; 3 Har. & McH. 433; 2 Johns. R. 378; 2 Johns. R., 319. A receipt in full, given with a full knowledge of all the circumstances and in the absence of fraud, seems to be conclusive. 1 Esp. C. 172; Benson v. Bennet, 1 Camp. 394, n.
3. A receipt sometimes contains an acknowledgment of having received a thing, and also an agreement to do another. It is only prima facie evidence as far as the receipt goes, but it cannot be contradicted by parol evidence in any part by which the party engages to perform a contract. A bill of lading, for example, partakes of both these characters; it may be contradicted or explained as to the facts stated in the recital, as that the goods were in good order and well conditioned; but, in other respects, it cannot be contradicted in any other manner than a common written contract. 7 Mass. R. 297; 1 Bailey, R. 174; 4 Ohio, R. 334; 3 Hawks, R. 580; 1 Phil. & Am. on Ev. 388; Greenl. Ev. §305. Vide, generally, 1 B . & C. 704 S. C. 8 E. C. L. R. 193; 2 Taunt. R. 141; 2 T. R. 366; 5 B. & A. 607; 7 E. C. L. R. 206; 3 B. & C. 421; 1 East, R. 460.
4. If a man by his receipt acknowledges that he has received money from an agent on account of his principal, and thereby accredits the agent with the principal to that amount, such receipt is, it seems, conclusive as to the payment by the agent. For example, the usual acknowledgment in a policy of insurance of the receipt of premium from the assured, is conclusive of the fact as between the underwriter and the assured; Dalzell v. Mair, 1 Camp. 532; although such receipt would not be so between the underwriter and the broker. And if an agent empowered to contract for sale, sell and convey land, enter into articles of agreement by which it is stipulated that the vendee shall clear, make improvements, pay the purchase money by installments, &c., and on the completion of the covenants to be performed by him, receive from the vendor or his legal representatives, a good and sufficient warranty deed in fee for the premises, the receipt of the agent for Such parts of the purchase-money as may be paid before the execution of the deed, is binding on the principal. 6 Serg. & Rawle, 146. See 11 Johns. R. 70.
5. A receipt on the back of a bill of exchange is prima facie evidence of payment by the acceptor. Peake's C. 25. The giving of a receipt does not exclude parol evidence of payment. 4 Esp. N. P. C. 214.
6. In Pennsylvania it has been holden that a receipt, not under seal, to one of several joint debtors, for his proportion of the debt, discharges the rest. 1 Rawle, 391. But in New York a contrary rule has been adopted. 7 John. 207. See Coxe, 81; 1 Root, 72. See Evidence.